Towards the end of the 1980s, developments in technology raised for the first time the prospect of the birth of a new type of city, one that is geographically isolated yet linked electronically with the rest of humanity. The Renegade City, an installation of mechanical sculptures by architects Ted Krueger and Ken Kaplan, alluded to this new urban typology. The project envisioned a city populated by
a self-selected community of technocratic innovators, scavengers, opportunists and ultimately renegades, that existed in an aquatic environment. Since designing such an ocean city is fundamentally against its nature, Kaplan and Krueger represented this urban entity through a series of interacting kinetic analog devices.